Perryville to Annapolis

3 Nov 1861

Perryville, Maryland was a divided town in a divided state with over 800 slaves in Cecil County at the beginning of the Civil War. The tensions in the eastern portion of Maryland rose considerably after Confederate supporters attacked Union soldiers as they passed through Baltimore on April 19, 1861. Railroads were destroyed and bridges were burned crippling ground transportation to areas south of the city. As a result, Perryville became a major staging and transportation hub for Union regiments moving to Annapolis and other points south. It was the end point for Union-controlled rail transportation to the south. Supplies and troops were transferred from rail upon reaching Perryville to water transportation. By the time Oliver Case and the troops of the 8th Connecticut reached just before midnight on November 2, 1861, the system for moving soldiers through the city was well established. The soldiers were given only a few hours of sleep in the depot before receiving the command to “fall in” and prepare to board the transport ships for the trip down the Chesapeake.

So, on the morning of November 3, 1861, the 8th CVI loaded the boats and departed Perryville heading down the Chesapeake Bay bound for Annapolis.

5 Nov 1861

The 8th CVI arrives at Annapolis after what Oliver describes as “a very pleasant trip down the Chesapeake.” For the first two nights, the troops are billeted in the buildings of St. John’s College which was confiscated by the Union Army at the beginning of the war to be used as a transition station for units heading south or to a camp of instruction at Camp Hicks near Annapolis. Camp Hicks is named for Maryland’s wartime governor. It is somewhat ironic that Camp Hicks received its name from the first of two wartime governors of the state of Maryland. Thomas Holliday Hicks was, at best, a politician attempting to play both sides of the issues deeply dividing the northern and southern states at the beginning of the war. In early 1861, Hicks worked to portray Maryland as a sort of neutral state that would not become involved in the dispute. He addressed the citizens of his state in January of 1861:

I firmly believe that a division of this Government would inevitably produce civil war. The secession leaders in South Carolina, and the fanatical demagogues of the North, have alike proclaimed that such would be the result, and no man of sense, in my opinion, can question it.[1]

This became an untenable position after President Lincoln called for volunteers from the states including Maryland in April of 1861. The governor also struggled to maintain his credibility with Lincoln after he appeared to side with Confederate supporters during the aftermath of the Baltimore riots, also in April 1861.


Governor Thomas Holliday Hicks (1798-1865) of Maryland

Hicks would find redemption with the administration by helping to avoid the movement of Maryland toward secession by moving the General Assembly from Annapolis to Frederick in April of 1861 ensuring a vote for Maryland to remain in the Union. The governor claimed that he relocated the assembly to Frederick for “safety and comfort of the members.”[2]

The city of Annapolis had just recently been occupied by Union soldiers and Governor Hicks expressed concerns that the southern sympathies of eastern Maryland combined with the displeasure of the citizens at the military occupation of the city would have a detrimental effect of his efforts to have the state remain in the Union. Oliver Case would soon be on the front line of the efforts to improve relations between the citizens of Annapolis and the Union soldiers.

[1] Frank F. White, Jr., The Governors of Maryland 1777-1970 (Annapolis: The Hall of Records Commission, 1970)

[2] George L. Radcliffe, Governor Thomas Hicks of Maryland and the Civil War (Baltimore, 1901)

Oliver’s Story Goes National

Emily Rogers, co-owner of this blog and researcher, is competing at the national speech and debate tournment for the National Christian Forensics and Communication Association (NCFCA). She has advanced to the finals in the biographical narrative category and is competing this afternoon with the story of Oliver Cromwell Case, “Die Like A Man.” For updates and info, visit the NCFCA Facebook Page.

A Lecture for the Library, Running the Guard and Leaving Long Island

This continues the series presenting the timeline for events in the life of Oliver Cromwell Case and the 8th CVI leading up to the battle of Antietam in September 1862.

30 October 1861

Many soldiers including Oliver Case attend an evening lecture given by Chaplain Joseph J. Woolley of the 8th held in Jamaica. The purpose of the lecture is to raise money for a regimental library to be used by the soldiers during their training and beyond.[1] Connecticut regiments are notable among all the regiments for their extensive libraries. By mid-July of 1862, the Connecticut units have compiled “1284 volumes and 5450 magazines shelved and locked in strong portable cases with a written catalogue and proper regimental labels.”[2] The lecture by Chaplain Woolley raises $40 toward the library and Oliver finds Rev. Woolley to be “an eloquent preacher as well as a very social and agreeable man” and believes that he is “superior to Dr. Holland,” his pastor back in Simsbury. Joseph Woolley played a major role in the acquisition and care of the regimental library. He commented on the receipt of books from the Christian Commission:

“The nicely selected stock was gone in two hours after I had opened the box,” wrote Chaplain Morris of the 8th Connecticut Volunteers. “Since that time the delivery and return of books has occupied several hours a day. Dickens has a great run. The tales of Miss Edgeworth and TS Arthur are very popular. The Army and Navy Melodies are hailed with delight and the boys are singing right merrily almost every night. Day before yesterday I received a box of pamphlets from the Commission. There were half a dozen men ready to open the box and twenty more at hand to superintend the process and share the contents. The demand for reading is four times the supply…”[3]

Oliver is so engrossed in the presentation by Reverend Woolley and the discussion that follows, that he loses track of time and has to “run the guard” because he is out past recall. No punitive action is taken against Private Case for his absence.[4]

               Post-war photo of Rev. Joseph J. Woolley, Chaplain of the 8th CVI

 The Rev. Woolley was a native of Bridgeport, Connecticut and entered the ministry in the Methodist Episcopal church only two years before the war began. He would serve with the 8th during the Burnside expedition in North Carolina, but was discharged due to the effects of typhoid fever prior to the beginning of the Maryland Campaign. After his recovery, Rev. Woolley would go on to serve as pastor of several churches. At the unveiling of a statute honoring General Burnside in Providence, Rhode Island on July 4, 1887, Rev. Woolley delivered the invocation.

Religious fervor is high amongst the Connecticut soldiers in camp including the 8th CVI.

Each regiment also organized and supported a Sunday school…The Eighth held a regimental prayer-meeting every Sunday night at their chapel, — “an enclosure of trees and earth, with walls six feet high, and no roof.” Just before sailing, about fifty partook of the communion here.[5]

As soldiers prepare daily for battle, many become aware of the spiritual consequences of what may lay ahead for them. Services are well attended and prayers are earnestly offered up.

Solemn prayer goes up to heaven for strength in the hour of trial, and earnest prayer for protection from temptation’s power; comrades press home upon their fellows the necessity of safety in Christ ; tearful eyes and softened hearts attest the fervor with which all unite in the petition for dear ones left at home- And so the hour passes almost unnoted, and men are surprised when the chaplain pronounces the benediction.[6]

31 Oct 1861

As Oliver writes a letter to his sister Abbie, an impromptu concert is taking place in his tent including “2 or 3 in our tent playing on their violins, and it is full of spectators” including Benejah. He has spent most of his day on “water guard” which consists of retrieving water from the designated source for the general use of those in his unit or his tent. Oliver comments that he enjoys this duty because it provides “considerable time for myself” and away from the roar of the camp. This is one of several indicators in Oliver’s letters that point to him as an introspective, intellectual personality who likely enjoyed academic pursuits.[7]

1 Nov 1861 8:00pm         

8th CVI departs Hunter’s Point, L.I. via boat bound for South Amboy, New Jersey. The steamer is packed with 1000 soldiers that would normally accommodate only half that number. Oliver writes that “every available niche of room was occupied, many of us lying with our heads upon each other.” A hard rain is falling as the soldiers load the steamer.[8]


Due to stormy seas, the steamer is towed into “Pier No. 1 N. River” until the storm has passed.[9]

2 Nov 1861 1:00am

The storm passes and the steamer leaves port bound for South Amboy.[10]


The steamer arrives safely at South Amboy. The soldiers of the 8th are quickly transferred to waiting rail cars to take them to Philadelphia. The large, slow-moving train consists of 19 passenger cars and 8 freight cars for the horses and baggage.


The train arrives at Philadelphia to a warm reception by the local citizens. The weary soldiers are treated to dinner described by Oliver Case as “a huge dinner and if anyone ever did justice to a dinner, we did to that.”[11]

Around 5:00pm

The soldiers reload the train and it departs Philadelphia moving very slow which allows the residents to shake hands through the windows and bid the soldiers farewell.

Just before midnight

After numerous mechanical problems along the route including eleven car couplings breaking at various places, the train finally arrives at Perryville, Maryland where the soldiers will be transferred again to a boat. The soldiers of the 8th sleep in a nearby depot as they wait for the boat. Oliver has just enough time to pen a letter to his sister Abbie, but even as he writes, the command of “fall in” is being given.[12]

[1] The Military and Civil History of Connecticut: The War of 1861-1865, W.A. Croffut and John M. Morris, Ledyard Bill, New York, 1868

[2] Books in the War: The Romance of Library War Service, Theodore Wesley Koch, Riverside Press Cambridge, Boston, 1919

[3] IBID

[4] The Letters of Oliver Cromwell Case (Unpublished), Simsbury Historical Society, Simsbury, CT, 1861-1862

[5] (Morris, 1869)

[6] IBID

[7] (Case)

[8] IBID

[9] IBID

[10] IBID

[11] IBID

[12] IBID

Welcome to New York

This continues the series on the movement of Private Oliver Cromwell Case and the 8th CVI toward the fields of Sharpsburg, Maryland in September 1862.

20-26 October 1861

The soldiers of the 8th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry find themselves to be welcomed guests among the citizens of Jamaica on Long Island, New York. Oliver describes the New Yorkers as being “very familiar (much more than Conn. People) [and] I should also say generous and hospitable.” He continues with the account of their hospitality in a letter to Abbie:

They gave our Regt. over a thousand  loaves of bread last week besides giving us many apples and welcoming to their houses all who are so fortunate as to get out side of guard.[i]

The 8th settles into camp life, but it doesn’t take long to reveal one of the great disrupters of camp life…alcoholic beverages. Oliver and his fellow witness that alcohol and soldiering don’t always mix. During the Civil War, a drunk soldier was often referred to as being “shot in the neck” or to have “a brick in his hat” and could be subjected to significant disciplinary action for his behavior while intoxicated. One such corporal in Company A of the 8th CVI is returned to the junior enlisted ranks and is made to forfeit one month’s pay as punishment for public intoxication. Based on a study of the company rolls, the offending corporal could possibly be identified as John F. Saundbaum of Hartford.

Commanders were often concerned with the effects of drunkenness on morale and made efforts to improve morale and suppress undisciplined behavior in numerous ways.

The morale of the regiments was correspondingly raised. Gambling and liquor-selling were suppressed; offenders being severely punished, and their stakes and stock confiscated for the regimental fund. Profanity was rebuked. Unnecessary Sunday labor was avoided. Religious meetings were frequent…[ii]

Punishment for a drunken soldier (from Harper’s Weekly, June 28, 1862)

23 October 1861

As newly recruited regiments pour in from the northeastern states, General Burnside establishes his headquarters at Annapolis and prepares to receive the new soldiers and officers for training and equipping as part of his “coastal division” which will be transformed into an expeditionary force bound for the Confederate defenses along the coast of North Carolina.

28 October 1861

Oliver writes to his sister that he is hearing a rumor of the efforts of Joseph R. Toy of Simsbury to raise a new company of volunteers from the town. The tone of Oliver’s letter makes it seem as if he had expected Toy to raise this company for some period of time.[iii]

Toy is a prominent citizen of Simsbury who stirred up patriot fervor in the town to raise the infantry company in which he would serve as commander. Captain Toy’s service to the Union would be a brief one as he died in camp in June of 1862. Interestingly, local history in Simsbury recounts that his body was returned to his hometown for burial packed in a cask of whiskey.  On July 16, 1862, the Reverend Ichabod Simmons delivered the funeral sermon at the Congregational Church in Simsbury inspiring another group of Simsbury men including Oliver’s brothers to join the Union cause on the battlefield.

Oliver spends his Monday afternoon concerned with the domestic chores essential to a soldier’s life including washing and folding his clothes. In a glimpse of his humorous side, Oliver opines to Abbie, “I think I will make a good washerwoman.” Camp life in Civil War regiments will require soldiers to engage in many activities that may have been foreign to them during life back home.

29 – 30 October 1861         

Company A along with all of the soldiers of the 8th CVI are made to stand for physical examinations. Oliver writes that “the men are not troubled with clothes while undergoing this examination.”[iv]

Physical examinations conducted by Army surgeons during the Civil War were often less than thorough in relation to modern physical examination standards. In particular, induction physical examinations used the pass rate as a measure of success ensuring that recruits with all their limbs, good teeth (for tearing rifle cartridges) and adequate sight/hearing would be retained for service. As one regimental surgeon put it, “Many of [the soldiers] ought never to have come out, having broken constitutions or bodily defects which entirely disqualify them for the life of a soldier.”[v]

The purpose of these examinations for the 8th CVI is unclear coming some five weeks after the organization and activation of the regiment. It may be related to the fact that in August of 1861 the Army made an attempt to begin weeding out many of the volunteers who were not physically qualified by requiring additional and more methodical examinations. This included follow up exams for those regiments already in service. Oliver’s emphasis on “this” when referring to the examination may indicate that a previous examination had occurred but it did not include disrobing when standing before the physician. Also, the commander and/or the regimental surgeon may have had concerns about the physical condition of some of the soldiers. Whatever the situation, at least five soldiers were discharged as unfit within a few days of this examination as indicated by the company rolls.

Some officers left on account of ill health ; a few were dismissed;”others,” wrote an officer, “strong men physically, found themselves entirely unfitted for the profession of arms, and bore the mortification of resigning that others might take their places.[vi]

In Oliver’s situation, there was a great deal of concern on his part that he might be dismissed from the regiment due to the lingering signs of some previous illness that he does not specify. He tells his sister, Abbie, that the doctor “questioned me pretty close about that breaking out on my shoulders – there is hardly anything left but the scars.” Obviously, Abbie is familiar with this illness because Oliver writes that “if he had seen it two months ago [which places it prior to his enlistment] I would have gotten thrown overboard…” The crisis of possible discharge is quickly overcome with Oliver telling the examining physician that the scars were “nothing but a little breaking out and had not been there a great while.” This obviously satisfied the doctor and Oliver was allowed to continue his service in the 8th CVI.[vii]

In a tragic irony, this is the first of several recorded instances of Oliver experiencing a close encounter with potential discharge from service.

[i] The Letters of Oliver Cromwell Case (Unpublished), Simsbury Historical Society, Simsbury, CT, 1861-1862

[ii] The Military and Civil History of Connecticut: The War of 1861-1865, W.A. Croffut and John M. Morris, Ledyard Bill, New York, 1868

[iii] (Case)

[iv] (Case)

[v] A Surgeon’s Civil War: The Letters and Diary of Daniel M. Holt, M.D., Holt, Daniel M., Kent State University Press, 1994.

[vi] (Morris, 1869)

[vii] (Case)

Shipping Out from Hartford

17 October 1861 – 4:00pm

On this day, the 8th Connecticut is officially transferred to federal service and Colonel Harland fulfills his orders to report with the regiment for additional training in New York. Baggage and soldiers are loaded and the regiment departs Camp Buckingham in Hartford via ship bound for the Camp of Instruction on Long Island, NY (Jamaica). Cheering crowds greet the soldiers as they make their way down the Connecticut River. The unit strength is at 1,016. It will never be that high again.

As it[the ship] passed towards the river, the departing soldiers were greeted with waving flags and resounding cheers from proud relatives and friends, and grateful strangers, who only knew them as a part of the grand Union army going eagerly forth to offer vicarious atonement for the sins of the nation.[1]

Although a multitude of rumors spread through the ranks, Oliver and the soldiers of the 8th CVI have no clue as to their destination. They must settle into the cramped quarters of the ship and wait. Much to their delight, the soldiers of Company A find some of the better accommodations aboard the boat.

Our quarters, that is Co. A’s, were in the gangway forward of the shaft. We spread our beds all over the floor and bunked in like a mess of pigs; some were in the water shoe deep. I managed to get a dry place and with my knapsack for a pillow slept soundly for about two hours when I heard my name called loud enough to start any living person to stand guard for an hour over our traps (?) and guns.[2]

18 October 1861


After being relieved from his duty of guarding the baggage and weapons, Oliver finds that he is unable to accomplish any restful sleep probably caused by the combined effects of anticipation and the cramped quarters on the ship.[3]


As the ship approaches New York City, the early morning fog begins to clear allowing the lights of the city to come into view for the soldiers of the 8th CVI.[4]


There is great excitement among the soldiers as the ship puts ashore at Staten Island. In anticipation of leaving their cramped quarters, the soldiers of the 8th scramble to find their knapsacks and other equipment. The horses are taken off the ship first prompting the troops to don their knapsacks and prepare to disembark. Much to their disappointment after standing for hours, the troops are not allowed to leave the ship.[5] The vessel is holding in place for the Granite State to come up from New York. The U.S.S. Granite State was a wooden ship dating back to 1825 that was not used until the Civil War. There is some ambiguity about when it was first used in the war. If Oliver Case is correct about the name of the ship, it was being used as early as 1861 although some sources say it was not used until 1863.


After over 17 hours on the ship and waiting for 3 hours at the ready to leave, the soldiers of the 8th are told they are not going ashore at Staten Island. The horses are reloaded and the ship follows the same path by which it came to Staten Island, passing New York City again enroute to a destination yet unknown to the passengers.[6]



An 1861 map of New York depicting many of the place names from Oliver’s letters including Staten Island, Hunter’s Point and Jamaica, Long Island.


The ship arrives at Hunter’s Point, Long Island. Some of the members of the regiment are allowed to leave the ship, but the troops of Company A wait for another two to three hours before disembarking the ship and boarding a train to their Camp of Instruction at Jamaica, Long Island. The troops of Company A have learned a hard lesson that veteran soldiers know too well as “hurry up and wait.” It’s been over 24 hours in cramped, damp quarters and as Oliver views the long day of delays he maintains his sense of humor writing, “All things must have an end and so did our waiting.”[7]


A heavy rain falling since the afternoon prevents the proper assembly of tents at the camp so the soldiers spend their first night on Long Island sleeping under a rainy sky. An abundant supply of cedar trees provides bedding for tired troops.[8]

19 October 1861 – Sunrise

Oliver and his fellow soldiers awake to find that the rain coupled with a heavy fog has left all the equipment including their guns wet and rusting. The soldiers will spend the day cleaning and drying before assembling and moving into their tents.[9]

20 Oct 1861

Oliver attends church at an unspecified location and visits with his cousin, Benejah Holcomb who is also a member of the 8th CVI serving in Company C.[10]

Benejah Holcomb is from Granby which is about two hours walking distance from Simsbury. He enlisted in Company C of the 8th CVI on September 11, 1861. He will be discharged for unknown reasons from the 8th on January 1, 1863. Holcomb is a descendant of Lieutenant Benejah Holcomb, a Revolutionary War hero, and also a distant cousin of Oliver and Abbie Case. It is not known whether Abbie and Oliver knew him to be a cousin or had some other association with him. He is mentioned in many of Oliver’s letters to Abbie making it seem that knowing of him was of some importance to her.


[1] The Military and Civil History of Connecticut: The War of 1861-1865, W.A. Croffut and John M. Morris, Ledyard Bill, New York, 1868

[2] The Letters of Oliver Cromwell Case (Unpublished), Simsbury Historical Society, Simsbury, CT, 1861-1862

[3] IBID

[4] IBID

[5] IBID

[6] IBID

[7] IBID

[8] IBID

[9] IBID

[10] IBID

Oliver Answers the Call

Old men for counsel, young men for war. – Unknown

As we approach the 150th anniversary for the Battle of Antietam and the high water mark for the story of Oliver Cromwell Case, I want to pause from the chronological presentation and commentary on his letters. Since only a few letters remain in the collection, I think it will be useful to return to hit the high points of Oliver’s journey on the road to the fields of Sharpsburg. Over the summer, I plan to present a series of posts that summarize the movements of the 8th CVI and the experiences of Private Case. Along the way, I will cover his last few letters to Abbie.

Oliver Cromwell Case was born three days before Christmas Day in 1839 to Job and Abigail Phelps Case members of two of the founding families of Simsbury, Connecticut. He was the youngest of three sons (Ariel – 1831 and Alonzo – 1834) with one younger sister, Abbie, born in 1846. An older sister, Rachel, died as an infant in 1830. The family lived on a small farm just outside of Simsbury in a simple frame, colonial style two-story house built around 1790 likely by Oliver’s great grandfather, Job Case. His father’s one hundred acre farm primarily produced tobacco with other products such as rye, Indian corn, oats, Irish potatoes, hay and fruit.


Job Case House at 105 Terrys Plain Road in Simsbury, CT

The Case family was prominent in the Simsbury area and members of the family had served in various capacities in military organizations since the 1600s. Job Case, Oliver’s great-grandfather, was a captain of the militia in the French and Indian War and then commanded a company of militia from Simsbury during the Revolutionary War. His grandfather, Ariel Case, served in the 18th Militia Regiment and his father was a captain of the cavalry for the state militia.

Education was obviously a priority for the Case family as evidenced by the quality of Oliver’s letters which becomes evident as you read those letters. The historical record shows that Alonzo Case spent his early educational years in a one-room schoolhouse near the family farm. He moved on to continue his matriculation at the Connecticut Literary Institute, Suffield and Wilbraham Academies. It is likely that Oliver followed much the same educational path as his older brother. Also, as reveal in several of his letters, Oliver’s younger sister Abbie attended a school that required funding which was provided, at least in part, by her brother.[1]

Oliver’s important decision to join Company B of the 8th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry Regiment on September 16, 1861 would set in motion a chain of events that dramatically impacted his life over the next year and created a permanent and painful scar on his family forever. The motive behind the decision by the young Mr. Case to volunteer at that particular moment in time is lost to history and his intentions can only be inferred from circumstantial evidence and the letters he left behind.

Obviously, the embarrassing rout of the Union Army at Manassas Junction in July of 1862 and President Lincoln’s subsequent call for additional troops from the states to include 13,000 from Connecticut impacted the attitude of the young man. Governor Buckingham of Connecticut issued his call to fill the quota as excitement swept through the state with a series of public gatherings to encourage enlistments and solicit funds for the new regiments. Connecticut Civil War historians Croffut and Morris described the scene in the state:

Meetings were held in the different towns, at which the citizens flocked to listen, to applaud, to encourage enlistments, and to contribute to the volunteer fund. Immense mass-meetings were held in the cities, — the largest and most excited gatherings ever seen in the State.[2]

This patriotic fervor likely struck Oliver as he also saw the opportunity to become his own man moving out from the shadow of his older brothers and gaining the respect of his family and community. Both of his brothers had responsibilities to their families and farms that would hold them out of service to the Union cause for another eleven months.

On September 27, 1861, the 8th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry Regiment was officially organized and activated at the training ground known as Camp Buckingham located just outside of Hartford, Connecticut and recently the training ground of the 5th CVI. The man selected to command this new regiment was Colonel Edward Harland of Norwich, a Yale-educated lawyer who has recently returned from his first military experience as a Captain in the 3rd Connecticut Volunteer Infantry Regiment commanding Company D during the recent Union loss at the Battle of Bull Run. Since the 3rd CVI was a “3-month” regiment, the 29-year old Harland soon found himself without a unit. Harland’s desire for continued service coupled with his reputation as a proven combat leader brought him to an appointment as the new Colonel of the 8th CVI.

Colonel Edward Harland, Commanding Officer, 8th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry Regiment

Within a few days of assuming command of the regiment, Colonel Harland received word that the 8th would be one of two regiments provided to fulfill the requirements given to Governor Buckingham by the United States Secretary of War Simon Cameron. The regiment was ordered to prepare for movement to Camp Hempstead at Long Island, New York where they would be under the command of Brigadier General Ambrose Burnside. Although a West Point graduate, Burnside’s leadership of a brigade at Bull Run was less than impressive. However, his pre-war business connections and friendship with the newly appointed commander of the Union armies, Major General George B. McClellan, landed Burnside a highly desirable command position leading an expeditionary force intended to invade North Carolina. The soldiers of the 8th were unaware of their future mission as they prepared to depart Hartford on October 17, 1861 bound for New York.

Although Oliver originally enlisted in Company B, on October 1, 1861 he was transferred to Company A for unknown reasons.[3] He does not mention the transfer in any of his existing letters, but he did not seem to be opposed to the reassignment and seems to have quickly formed friendships with members of his new company.

[1] The Letters of Oliver Cromwell Case (Unpublished), Simsbury Historical Society, Simsbury, CT, 1861-1862

[2] The Military and Civil History of Connecticut: The War of 1861-1865, W.A. Croffut and John M. Morris, Ledyard Bill, New York, 1868

[3] Catalogue of Connecticut Volunteer Organizations, C.M. Ingersoll, Brown and Gross, Hartford, CT, 1869